Anemia is defined as a decrease in the concentration of hemoglobin below threshold values related to age, sex and physiological status . It is a major global public health problem with negative consequences on both human health and socio-economic development . Anemia is considered a hidden hunger and is an indicator of poor nutrition and health status . The most common cause of anemia is martial deficiency caused by prolonged iron deficiency due to inadequate food intake, increased needs during growth or pregnancy and losses due to menstruation or helminthiasis . In Africa, in addition to martial deficiency, malaria is one of the main causes of anemia  . Among pre-school infants, the global prevalence of anemia is 47.4%, with 293 million children affected worldwide. The rate is about 17% in Europe, 40% in South America and 64.6% in Africa, representing more than 90 million children . Anemia and martial deficiency lead to reduced well-being and a state of fatigue and lethargy, reduced performance and impaired physical and intellectual work capacity . Children with anemia have a 4.3 times greater risk of death than children without anemia .
According to the 2018 Demographic Health Survey in Cameroon, the prevalence of anemia in children aged 6 – 59 months varies irregularly by age, from a high percentage of 77% in the 9 – 11-month age group to a low percentage of 47% in children aged 48 – 59 months . In the Adamawa region of Cameroon, one of the most affected regions, anemia is the deadliest pathology of infants; 820 cases of anemia in 2018 with 566 blood transfusions were recorded in the pediatric department of the Ngaoundere Regional Hospital. These rates are still high and disturbing as efforts are being made in Cameroon to prevent anemia. These efforts include the fight against malnutrition to promote and support good infant and young child feeding; the promotion of breastfeeding; the fight against nutritional deficiencies through iron fortification of commonly used foods and spices, systematic deworming and the fight against malaria through the distribution of long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs). We found it wise to see what is happening at the first level of anemia management in children. According to Link et al, the nature and extent of the social inequalities that affect child mortality must be studied if we are to continue to reduce child mortality . That is why we conducted this study, the objective of which was to assess the knowledge of mothers of children aged 0 to 5 years on the definition of anemia, its signs, etiologies, treatment, and to determine their attitudes towards anemia.
2.1. Framework of the Study
Our study was carried out in the consultation, hospitalization, and vaccination wards of the pediatrics department of the regional hospital of Ngaoundere. This is the first reference hospital in the Adamawa region of Cameroon.
2.2. The Target Population
All mothers who met our inclusion criteria and who were present in the pediatric ward during the study period were selected.
2.2.1. Ethical Consideration
This study was conducted after obtaining the approval of the Ethics Committee of the Ngaoundere Regional Hospital. The consent of each mother was obtained before completing the questionnaire and confidentiality was respected.
2.2.2. Inclusion Criteria
We included in our study mothers with one or more children fewer than 5 years old, who were hospitalized or who came for consultation and those who were seen in the vaccination room with a child aged between 0 and 5 years during our study period and who agreed to answer our questionnaire after informed consent.
2.2.3. Exclusion Criteria
We excluded mothers who did not give their consent and mothers who did not know the ages or the child’s background.
2.3. Sample Size
A total of 152 mothers freely agreed to participate in this study.
2.4. Type and Period of Study